Scientists have learned that the ancient Indians brought dogs from Siberia
09 Julio, 2018, 15:26 | Author: Earnest Bishop
Using genetic information from 71 archaeological dog remains from North America and Siberia, an worldwide team led by researchers at the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Queen Mary University of London, and Durham University showed that "native" (or "pre-contact") American dogs, which arrived alongside people over 10,000 years ago and dispersed throughout North and South America, possessed genetic signatures unlike dogsfound anywhere else in the world.
As well as studying the mitochondrial DNA, researchers also sequenced the nuclear genome of seven of the ancient dogs, as reported by Gizmodo, leading them to conclude that ancient dogs which lived in huge populations all over the Americas did not survive the onslaught of the European colonizers from the 15th century onward.
According to researchers, this form of cancer is found in dogs today inhabiting the Americas, and this is the only feature which connects them with ancient American dogs who migrated from Siberia and other parts of Asia. However, after analyzing the DNA of the dogs that lived with the Indians 10 thousand years ago, experts came to the conclusion that their genetic structure mostly coincides with the individuals who lived in ancient Siberia. "We suspect that a lot of the reasons [ancient] dogs were wiped out, were similar reasons that Native American populations were destroyed", Perri said.
But one close relative of these native dogs lives on in an unexpected place - as a transmissible cancer whose genome is that of the original dog in which it appeared, but which has since spread throughout the world. They likely came over in a wave of migration only about 1,000 years ago-roughly 500 years before the Europeans arrived-meaning that they are a little more closely related.
Preserved in every single CTVT tumour is ancient DNA from the long-dead founder.
The new study dispelled a previous theory about the origin of dogs in the Americas, which posited that they evolved from domesticated wolves.
To trace the story of these pre-contact dogs, researchers studied DNA found in the mitochondria of 71 North American and Siberian dog bones. Genetic traces of these dogs have largely vanished, even when we look at breeds still considered to be "native American" like Chihuahuas, Mexican hairless dogs, and South American village dogs.
"It is known how Indigenous peoples of the Americas suffered from the genocidal practices of European colonists after contact", author Ripan Malhi, an anthropology professor at the University of IL, explains. The tumor cells spread through mating and carry a copy of that original DNA, allowing researchers to paint a clear picture of the "founding dog", or patient zero.
Despite their annihilation, the displaced exacted what Perri said she and her colleagues darkly joke is "the revenge of these native American dogs".
An extremely good boy undergoing treatment for CTVT.
The oldest dog remains in the Americas date to about 9,000 years ago, many thousands of years after people began migrating over a land bridge connecting present-day Siberia and Alaska. Some ancient remains excavated decades ago and labeled wolves or coyotes might actually be from dogs or hybrids, but it will take DNA analysis to find out, she said.
"But the cancer genome we found was a real surprise", Linderholm said. Their relationship can be traced back from the earliest of times.
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